Attention is drawn to the following C2-SENSE publications:

First Author
Bojan Božić  iiWAS2014
Bojan Božić  ISESS 2015
Refiz Duro Geospatial World Forum2015
Mert Gençtürk  IWEI 2015
Mert Gençtürk eChallenges 2015
(Poster, 2015)
Refiz Duro ICA 2015
 Mert Gençtürk IESA 2016
Gerald Schimak iEMS 2016
Gerald Schimak IDRC 2016
Refiz Duro ISESS 2017



A Social Networking Platform for Semantic Time Series Processing
Bojan Božić, Werner Winiwarter and Marco Diciano

For the 16th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services (iiWAS2014).  December 2014.

Abstract: “In this paper, we present a social networking platform for semantic time series processing which enables expert users and time series analysts to improve their data collection and collaborate on common data in order to initiate an automated, dynamic process of assignment of right data to the right user. Our approach is the combination of the research areas of Semantic Web, Time Series Processing, and Community Building as a basis for an interactive and intelligent Web portal for expert users. The basis of our portal is a bridge ontology which enables the integration of specific domain ontologies and thus prepares the stage for the application of ontology mapping and reasoning methods. Furthermore, we present our prototype implementation and provide the validation of our concepts based on two domain ontologies from an international research project.



Requirements Engineering for Semantic Sensors in Crisis and Disaster Management

(Link to PDF)

Bojan Božić (AIT), Mert Gençtürk (SRDC), Refiz Duro (AIT), Yildiray Kabak (SRDC), and Gerald Schimak (AIT)

For the International Symposium on Environmental Software System Conference (ISESS 2015), Melbourne, Australia. March 25-27, 2015.

Abstract: “This paper describes the requirements engineering methodology used for the definition of semantic sensors in a crisis and disaster management framework. The goal of the framework is effective management of emergencies which depends on timely information availability, reliability and intelligibility. To achieve this, different Command and Control (C2) Systems and Sensor Systems have to cooperate and interoperate. Unless standards and well-defined specifications are used, however, the interoperability of these systems can be very complex. To address this challenge, in the C2-SENSE[1] project, a “profiling” approach will be used to achieve seamless interoperability by addressing all the layers of the communication stack in the security field. The main objective is to develop a profile based Emergency Interoperability framework by the use of existing standards and semantically enriched Web services to expose the functionalities of C2 Systems, Sensor Systems and other emergency and crisis management systems. We introduce the concepts of Semantic Sensors, describe the characteristics of Sensor Systems in Emergency Management, and the methodology of requirements engineering for such a framework.”


C2-SENSE: The Emergency Interoperability Framework and Knowledge Management

(PDFPresentation Slides)

Refiz Duro (AIT), Gerald Schimak (AIT) and Bojan Božić (AIT)

For the Geospatial World Forum INSPIRE Conference (INSPIRE 2015), Lisbon, Portugal. May 24-29, 2015.

Abstract: “Man made as well as natural hazards and disasters require great, often border crossing, efforts. In such crisis situations there is a great need for tools that facilitate communication, resource management and offer decision making solutions in organizational structures. The Command and Control C2-SENSE Framework aims to develop a (GIS) tool for such extreme needs. The system gathers sensor network data from disaster affected areas and presents them to the user of the system. During the process, sensor data are homogenized (due to different sensors’ output formats) and semantically enriched (e.g., every datum is geotagged) according to OGC standards. The further process of data analysis is tailored for the specific user profile (police department, hospital, ambulance, fire department), and relevant information is visualized on appropriate maps. The central part of the system is the Knowledge Interoperability Layer, in which the data are processed for main analysis and visualization. The layer is comprised of several components responsible for sensor management, sensor data requests, map requests (from Map Services), data and map mash-ups and visualization, and decision making process. The components together provide robust, accurate and reliable crisis situation information.  A user will only be provided with relevant information, thereby saving time and energy, and thus being more able to focus on correct decision making, vital in hazard and disaster situations. Moreover, a common information space for crisis managers is developed within the project EPISECC. In this frame the focus is set on protocol & network, information as well as operational interoperability.”


Profiling Approach for the Interoperability of Command & Control Systems with Sensing Systems in Emergency Management  

(PDFPresentation Slides)

Mert Gençtürk (SRDC), Raul Arisi, (LUTECH SPA), Lorenzo Toscano (LUTECH SPA), Yildiray Kabak (SRDC), Marco Di Ciano (Innova Puglia SPA), Agostino Palmitessa (Innova Puglia SPA)

For the 6th International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability (IWEI 2015), Nîmes, France. May 27-29, 2015.

Abstract: “In order to manage emergencies, crises and disasters effectively, different organizations with their Command & Control (C2) and Sensing Systems have to cooperate and constantly exchange and share data and information. In other words, territorial emergency management requires a cross-organisational, cross-domain, cross-level interoperability between the involved C2 and Sensing Systems. Although individual standards and specifications are usually adopted in C2 and Sensing Systems separately, there is no common, unified interoperability specification to be adopted in an emergency situation, which creates a crucial interoperability challenge for all the involved organisations. To address this challenge, we introduce a novel and practical profiling approach, which aims at achieving seamless interoperability of C2 and Sensing Systems in emergency management. Unlike the conventional profiling approach, which addresses only first three layers of interoperability stack, the profiling approach introduced in this paper involves all the layers of the communication stack in the security field. The work presented in this paper is achieved in the scope of the European Commission supported C2-SENSE project and partly in the scope of ITEA3 supported APPS Project.”

Interoperability Profiles for Disaster Managmenet and Maritime Surveillance


Mert Gençtürk (SRDC), Refiz Duro (AIT), Yildiray Kabak (SRDC), Bojan Božić (AIT), Kubilay Kahveci (SRDC) and Burcu Yilmaz (ASELSAN)

For the eChallenges e-2015 Conference (eChallenges), Vilnius, Lithuania. November 25-27, 2015.

Abstract: “Nowadays, many different Command and Control (C2) Systems and Sensor Systems take part in disaster management and maritime surveillance activities. In order to manage disasters effectively and achieve powerful surveillance, it is essential for C2 and Sensor Systems to cooperate and exchange timely available, reliable and intelligible information. Although globally accepted standards are used commonly in C2 and Sensor domains, there is no single specification of using these standards together for cooperation of disparate systems, which creates a crucial interoperability challenge. To address this challenge, profiling is a practical approach to achieve seamless interoperability among C2 and Sensor Systems in disaster management and maritime surveillance. The conventional profiling approach addresses three layers of interoperability stack – communication, documentation and business process layers. In this paper, however, we present a novel profiling approach addressing all the layers of the interoperability stack, including organizational and management aspects.”

Disasters, Maps & Data: C2-SENSE – Objects of Interest in Disaster Related Real-Time Situations

(Link to PDF)

Refiz Duro (AIT), Peter Kutschera (AIT), Gerald Schimak (AIT), Johannes Schabauer (AIT) and Raul Arisi (Lutech)

For the 1st ICA European Symposium on Catrography-2015 Conference (ICA 2015), Vienna, Austria. November 10-12, 2015.

Abstract: “Natural and human caused disasters are occurring more frequently, thereby resulting in loss of lives and damage to infrastructure with long-lasting negative economic and humanitarian effects. The role of emergency managers is to lower or prevent those losses by getting an overview of the crisis situation with their Command and Control (C2) systems, and by smart decision making. Analysis of geotagged sensor data and their wise presentation on maps are crucial in such cases. In the framework of the C2-SENSE project, crisis situation becomes alive on appropriate maps with the stream of (near) real-time data. The architecture of the C2-SENSE system provides interoperability to disparate C2 and sensor systems by standardization of data formats, adjusted, profile-based data sharing and communication, thereby offering a transnational disaster management, which is urgently needed when, for example, cross-border flooding occurs.”


Automating the Development and Implementation of Interoperability Profiles


Mert Gencturk (SRDC), Matteo Redaelli (Lutech), Yildiray Kabak (SRDC), Gokce Banu Lalelic Erturkmen (SRDC), Raul Arisi (Lutech) and Lorenzo Toscano (Lutech)

For the 8th  International Conference: Interoperability for Enterprise Systems and Applications (IESA 2016), Guimarães, Portugal. March 29 – April 01, 2016.

Abstract: In order to solve the interoperability problem among disparate systems and address the drawbacks and challenges in existing profiling approach, in this paper, an automated way to develop and implement interoperability profiles is introduced. We introduce a collaborative environment where profiles can easily be defined by following some step-by-step guidelines through an online tool and customized to specific organizations and incidences quickly through automatically generated business processes and templates. We also introduce a semantic metadata registry (MDR) concept to amend the content standards, invent a profile definition language (PDL) to represent the profiles digitally, and use Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) to define business processes to be executed.

Emergency Maps Tool – Fascilitating Collaboration and Decision Making During Emergency & Crisis Situation


Gerald Schimak (AIT), Peter Kutschera (AIT), Refiz Duro (AIT) and Katharina Kutschera (AIT)

For the 8th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMS 2016), Toulouse, France. July 10-14, 2016.

Abstract: “The Emergency Maps Tool (EMT) has been developed as part of a collaboration environment in the C2 – SENSE Emergency Interoperability Framework. The collaboration environment aims to connect all relevant organizations for joint response in emergency and crises situations. The Emergency Maps Tool aims to display all relevant resources (e.g., authorities, organization, points and object of interests, messages, etc.) involved or of special importance, in order to allow proper decision making. EMT allows decision makers to set and monitor activities, send and receive event related messages but also to include ad-hoc information from sensors or sensor networks (e.g., water monitoring sensors in case of flooding).Backbone of this tool is a data, communication and collaboration model realized in a flexible, configurable and extendable way. That means new, so-called “Objects of Interest (OOI)”, can be added on the fly and displayed by the EMT. In principle, such OOIs can be everything, spanning from metadata of responsible authorities to civil protection departments up to alarms, pure measurement values stemming from sensors, or information/messages about blocked roads as well as number of endangered peoples at aspecific location. This approach and the robust architectural solution of the C2-SENSE Framework provide solutions to several challenges in the domain of decision making in a crisis and emergency situation.”
Collaboration and Decision Making Tool for Emergency & Crisis Situationsn


Gerald Schimak (AIT), Refiz Duro (AIT) and Peter Kutschera (AIT)

For the IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management – towards resiliant cities conference (IDRC_2016), Davos, Switzerland. August 28- September 01, 2016.

Abstract: A proper collaboration environment is of utmost importance for crises managers as well as decision makers to get continuous and accurate information about the crises situation and to manage the available resources on the fly. Interoperability of existing systems, tools, methods and standardized processes are needed to allow effective management of emergencies, crises and disasters. Emergency Management and decision making tools shall support and monitor all activities between the evolved actors (e.g. authorities, first responders, volunteers, etc.). In an European funded project called C2- SENSE (Interoperability Profiles for Command/Control Systems and Sensor Systems in Emergency Management) a tool, called Emergency Maps Tool (EMT), has been developed as part of a broader collaboration environment in the C2-SENSE Emergency Interoperability Framework. This tool aims to display all relevant resources (e.g. authorities, organization, object of interests (like roads, railways, bridges), messages, alarms, etc.) involved or of special importance, in order to allow proper management of the crises situation. EMT allows decision makers to set and monitor activities, send and receive event related messages but also to include ad-hoc information from sensors or sensor networks (e.g. water monitoring sensors in case of flooding). Backbone of this tool is a data, communication and collaboration model realized in a flexible, configurable and extendable way. That means new, so-called “Objects of Interest (OOI)”, can be added on the fly and displayed by the EMT. In principle, such OOIs can be everything, spanning from metadata of responsible authorities to civil protection departments up to alarms, pure measurement values stemming from sensors, or information/messages about blocked roads as well as number of endangered peoples at a specific location.


Interoperable Framework for Managing Environmental Crises and Disasters 

(Abstract submitted)

Refiz Duro (AIT), Gerald Schimak (AIT), Mert Gencturk (SRDC),  Peter Kutschera (AIT), Denis Havlik (AIT) and Katharina Kutschera (AIT)

For the International Symposium on Environmental Software Systems (ISESS 2017) , Zadar, Croatia. May 10-12, 2017.

Abstract: Interoperability is a core component in management of crises and disasters. Crises require interoperability on several different levels: physical (communication, devices and tools), operational (crisis response procedures and protocols) and document level (information exchange). Here we present the Framework that facilitates interoperability on a level that relieves a crisis manager from most burdens related to crisis response (e.g., being available to access sensor data or communicate with other responders). The software components in the Framework are described, as well as the profiling approach that is necessitated for functioning interoperability at such a demanding level. The frequency of disasters is expected to increase in the forthcoming future mostly due to environmental changes. It is therefore necessary to provide the solutions, such as this one, to the interoperability issues encountered while dealing with crises.

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